Two laser stimulator prototypes are used since 1998 in reputed research centres:

  • Belgium, Brussels: Université catholique de Louvain, Faculty of Medicine, Unit READ – Professor L. Plaghki (not anymore in use)
  • France, Paris: INSERM, Unit E331 « Pain and Stress », Doctor D. Le Bars

The current LSD has known a lot of development, which makes all comparisons difficult and hazardous.